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American Airlines pilots begin using Apple's iPad during all phases of flight

post #1 of 47
Thread Starter 
American Airlines this month is expanding its iPad Electronic Flight Bag program, as 777 aircraft pilots begin using Apple's tablet during all phases of flight, helping to save an estimated $1.2 million per year on fuel costs.

The iPad is currently the only tablet approved by the FAA as an Electronic Flight Bag, and American Airlines is the first commercial carrier with FAA approval to use the iPad in all phases of flight, the company highlighted this week in a press release (via The Next Web). An Electronic Flight bag reduces or replaces paper-based reference materials and manuals usually kept in a pilot's carry-on kitbag. When stuffed with paper, those bags can way as much as 35 pounds.

American Airlines estimates that replacing the 35 pound bags with an iPad will result in $1.2 million in annual savings based on current fuel prices.

The airline became the first commercial carrier to gain approval to use the iPad as an Electronic Flight Bag in June of 2011. And as of this month, American Airlines plans to use the iPad in all phases of flight.

American
Pilot training at American Airlines.


"This is a very exciting and important milestone for all of us at American Airlines as we work to modernize our processes and best meet the needs of our people," said Captain John Hale, American's vice president of flight. "With this approval from the FAA, we will be able to use iPad to fully realize the benefits of our Electronic Flight Bag program, including improving the work environment for our pilots, reducing our dependency on paper products and increasing fuel efficiency on our planes. We are equipping our people with the best resources and this will allow our pilots to fly more efficiently."

Pilots with American Airlines will use mobile software and data from Jeppesen, a unit of Boeing Flight Services. The FAA-approved Jeppesen application will replace paper operating manuals with real-time, up-to-date electronic information that will be easier for pilots to access.

iPad use will begin this month on the 777 fleet of American Airlines. The carrier aims to gain FAA approval for all of its fleet types by the end of this year.

American
The iPad will be used in all phases of flight on American's 777 fleet of aircraft.


Beginning in January of 2013, American Airlines plans to stop distributing paper revisions to its flight manuals and most navigation charts.

"We're focused on building a new American where technology and innovation are fundamental to the company's return to industry leadership and exceptional customer service," said Maya Leibman, American's chief information officer. "The Electronic Flight Bag program is just one more example of the progress we're making to provide the tools our employees need to deliver operational improvements and leading customer experience. In fact, our Flight Attendants have also been piloting an initiative on handheld tablets, which will give them better information about the customers on their flight and their travel needs. We'll have more to share on this and other industry-leading technologies in the weeks and months to come."
post #2 of 47
I think it's safe to say that apple doesn't need to worry about competition from the Kindle Fire in markets like this.
post #3 of 47
I'm sure they have taken into account all the various possibilities of failure etc.

Seems great, the ability to search through the text may be a big bonus?
post #4 of 47
Speaking of fire. In the past if these guys crash landed in the snow they could have used their paper manual to start a fire. Not so any more. And where do they even have room to mount the iPad in that cockpit!?
post #5 of 47
Does anyone know if the GPS in an iPad will function, let alone keep up with the speed of a jet in flight?
post #6 of 47

This must be special iPads if they can be used during takeoff and landing without adversely affecting the plane's operation.

post #7 of 47
Well, am guessing they will not be required to turn off all electronic devices below 10,000 feet! And if not, perhaps the rest of us iPad owners can keep ours on as well!
post #8 of 47
But ,,, wait a minute ... This is a toy ! Why don't they use a PC, instead, for such serious task ?
post #9 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by TheShepherd View Post

This must be special iPads if they can be used during takeoff and landing without adversely affecting the plane's operation.

 

Why?

post #10 of 47
The only reason why they have you turn off all devices is so that you are more likely to listen to the attendant as they give the general safety speech/demonstration or in case there are any other instructions. They can't tell if you are using your device or not unless they see you, especially if you have airplane mode on.

W. Pauli, winner of the Nobel prize in physics, said that all scientific methods fail when questions of origin are involved.


http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=z6kgvhG3AkI

http://www.answersingenesis.org...

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W. Pauli, winner of the Nobel prize in physics, said that all scientific methods fail when questions of origin are involved.


http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=z6kgvhG3AkI

http://www.answersingenesis.org...

Reply
post #11 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by ExceptionHandler View Post

The only reason why they have you turn off all devices is so that you are more likely to listen to the attendant as they give the general safety speech/demonstration or in case there are any other instructions. They can't tell if you are using your device or not unless they see you, especially if you have airplane mode on.

But i is ok to read, sleep, wear ear-plugs, wear blinders. It really was believed to be a technical problem. It just isn't one anymore (if it ever really was). It has nothing to do with paying attention.
post #12 of 47
American fies antique MD80's and uses iPads , what a contrast. How's about retiring antiques.
post #13 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by Douglas Bailey View Post

Speaking of fire. In the past if these guys crash landed in the snow they could have used their paper manual to start a fire. Not so any more. And where do they even have room to mount the iPad in that cockpit!?

How many American Airline planes have crashed where 1) the people survived, and 2) the people who survived were all along for extended periods of time? Also, if I had to choose between 50 lbs of paper and an iPhone that will do the same thing I'll go for the iPad without once considering what I'll be using to wipe my ass in the woods or light a fire if I crash land in the middle of nowhere.

Maybe they don't mount it. Maybe it's used just like the paper. It's too bad Siri isn't a local service or has app APIs or they could search for items quickly.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Wovel View Post

But i is ok to read, sleep, wear ear-plugs, wear blinders. It really was believed to be a technical problem. It just isn't one anymore (if it ever really was). It has nothing to do with paying attention.

From what I've read the sentence I bolded isn't accurate. I read that it wasn't known if it could be a problem. When it comes to cylinders full of people flying at 500mph I'm okay with erring on the side of caution.

"The real haunted empire?  It's the New York Times." ~SockRolid

"There is no rule that says the best phones must have the largest screen." ~RoundaboutNow

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"The real haunted empire?  It's the New York Times." ~SockRolid

"There is no rule that says the best phones must have the largest screen." ~RoundaboutNow

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post #14 of 47

Then why make the change from only requiring people to put their device in airplane mode to require them to turn it off?  They actually tell you to stow away/secure everything before take off.  I assume that to mean all personal items, I could be wrong though, as they seem pretty lax about books and things of the like.

W. Pauli, winner of the Nobel prize in physics, said that all scientific methods fail when questions of origin are involved.


http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=z6kgvhG3AkI

http://www.answersingenesis.org...

Reply

W. Pauli, winner of the Nobel prize in physics, said that all scientific methods fail when questions of origin are involved.


http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=z6kgvhG3AkI

http://www.answersingenesis.org...

Reply
post #15 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by TheShepherd View Post

This must be special iPads if they can be used during takeoff and landing without adversely affecting the plane's operation.

http://www.livescience.com/5947-real-reason-cell-phone-banned-airlines.html

post #16 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by ExceptionHandler View Post

The only reason why they have you turn off all devices is so that you are more likely to listen to the attendant as they give the general safety speech/demonstration or in case there are any other instructions. T

 

Untrue.

 

Quote:

Originally Posted by ExceptionHandler View Post

They can't tell if you are using your device or not unless they see you, especially if you have airplane mode on.

 

True.

post #17 of 47

I'll have to re-find the original source, but the FAA does not automatically ban electronic devices below 10,000 feet.  It bans uncertified devices below 10,000 feet.  It is up to the airlines to say that they want to allow a certain device to be certified.  Because of the expense and complexity (Especially with the naming conventions of most companies) of certifying each device, it is easier for them to just say none are allowed (Which a different FAA rule allows them to do.). 

 

It is not a stretch however to believe that it was worth it to them to certify the model(s) of the iPads that they will be using.  The second rule is also what could allow them to say that the pilot's iPad is OK but your iPad even if it is the same model # is not OK.

post #18 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by Blastdoor View Post

I think it's safe to say that apple doesn't need to worry about competition from the Kindle Fire in markets like this.

Or, Microsoft.... the notion of 'crash' has worse connotations....lol.gif

post #19 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by Rodent View Post

American fies antique MD80's and uses iPads , what a contrast. How's about retiring antiques.

MD80s are far from the future: https://www.aa.com/i18n/amrcorp/newsroom/fp_amr_fleet_agreement.jsp

post #20 of 47
Quote:
This is such old news.

Basically interference runs from two categories:

Small planes and cell phones side signalling, the 'tick-ticka-ticka-ticka-ticka' noise you hear from the headphones plugged into an amplified sound source. This is mostly a small plane issue since they usually don't travel at an altitude that would prevent their cell phones from picking up a signal, and aren't fast enough to lose a signal lock. Hence in a small airplane, it's better to turn off the devices for the sake of the pilot being able to hear.

The other problem is the ground interference that used to be caused by the high singal power in analog and early second generation phones. Because a lot of the old systems weren't directional antennas, they were omnidirectional, and thus could pick up signals from airplanes. Nowadays the power level on a cell phone, tablet, etc are so low that bidirectional communication is impossible. It's still however possible for a plane full of powered-on cell phones to confuse ground networks due to the the same cellular device appearing in hundreds of cell sectors. There is a very easy solution to this, and that's to put GSM/LTE femtocells in the airplane so that the cell phones reduce their power levels once it loses contact with the ground network. Without this, the devices are still constantly broadcasting trying to find a connection unless you've put the device into airplane mode. Fortunately even the design of the iPad, it sets priority to the WiFi and doesn't try to use the Cellular network (if it's equipped) if it has a working WiFi connection. But unlike the early 2000's when power was a few watts and current models which are less than a tenth of the old ones.

I remember that an AMPS cell phone in 1998 would get extremely hot, like so hot you couldn't hold it for more than about 10 minutes.
post #21 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by Blastdoor View Post

I think it's safe to say that apple doesn't need to worry about competition from the Kindle Fire in markets like this.

I just worry about the new Toy's-R-Us tablet, that's the best competition to the iPad so far ... / wink
Been using Apple since Apple ][ - Long on AAPL so biased
nMac Pro 6 Core, MacBookPro i7, MacBookPro i5, iPhones 5 and 5s, iPad Air, 2013 Mac mini, SE30, IIFx, Towers; G4 & G3.
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Been using Apple since Apple ][ - Long on AAPL so biased
nMac Pro 6 Core, MacBookPro i7, MacBookPro i5, iPhones 5 and 5s, iPad Air, 2013 Mac mini, SE30, IIFx, Towers; G4 & G3.
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post #22 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by anantksundaram View Post

Or, Microsoft.... the notion of 'crash' has worse connotations....lol.gif

OMG ... what a thought! ROFL
Been using Apple since Apple ][ - Long on AAPL so biased
nMac Pro 6 Core, MacBookPro i7, MacBookPro i5, iPhones 5 and 5s, iPad Air, 2013 Mac mini, SE30, IIFx, Towers; G4 & G3.
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Been using Apple since Apple ][ - Long on AAPL so biased
nMac Pro 6 Core, MacBookPro i7, MacBookPro i5, iPhones 5 and 5s, iPad Air, 2013 Mac mini, SE30, IIFx, Towers; G4 & G3.
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post #23 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by umrk_lab View Post

But ,,, wait a minute ... This is a toy ! Why don't they use a PC, instead, for such serious task ?

Haha ... Can you imagine trying to find the stylus or the attachable Key board in an emergency?
Been using Apple since Apple ][ - Long on AAPL so biased
nMac Pro 6 Core, MacBookPro i7, MacBookPro i5, iPhones 5 and 5s, iPad Air, 2013 Mac mini, SE30, IIFx, Towers; G4 & G3.
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Been using Apple since Apple ][ - Long on AAPL so biased
nMac Pro 6 Core, MacBookPro i7, MacBookPro i5, iPhones 5 and 5s, iPad Air, 2013 Mac mini, SE30, IIFx, Towers; G4 & G3.
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post #24 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by calfoto View Post

Does anyone know if the GPS in an iPad will function, let alone keep up with the speed of a jet in flight?

I've tried to get lat/lon with the compass apps to no avail.
post #25 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by calfoto View Post

Does anyone know if the GPS in an iPad will function, let alone keep up with the speed of a jet in flight?

 

It doesn't really matter, the point of this isn't for using the GPS anyway.  The GPS on the aircraft will be far superior to the one built into the iPad, so they know physically where they are already.

 

What it's good for is having all the checklists, and constantly updated, the Airport/Facility Directory (that you are supposed to carry and always have an updated copy of), and all the maps.  For a cross country flight, the pilot will have IFR Enroute High and Low altitude charts, IFR Terminal Procedures publications, and relevant VFR Sectionals and Terminal Area Charts.  This stuff is all heavy, and it's worth noting that the charts expire every 6 months - keeping them updated is a pain in the arse.

 

As to the need to turn off electronics below 10,000ft, it's rules set by the airlines, with pathetic guidance from the FAA.  The relevant CFR is 14 CFR 91.21, which says all electronics devices (with a few minor exceptions) are banned on flights operating in Instrument Flight Conditions (so most scheduled flights), but that the Pilot in Command can make an exception to this rule if he/she deems it safe.

 

The FCC governs mobile phones (not the FAA), and they state, "Cellular telephones installed in or carried aboard airplanes, balloons or any other type of aircraft must not be operated while such aircraft are airborne (not touching the ground). When an aircraft leaves the ground, all cellular telephones on board that aircraft must be turned off."

 

Having been Pilot in Command of a light aircraft when a passenger didn't turn off their phone, I can say that the problem is the interference of the phone signal with your headphones.  Every time the phone communicated with the mast you could hear it in your headphones.  If it happened when you were trying to talk to a controller, it's very distracting, and if you fly around the Bay Area as I do, there is a lot of communications with the controllers to keep track of.

post #26 of 47
The reason you turn off your iPad and iPhone below 10,000 feet has little to do with the possibility of electronic interference with avionics. That is a myth, albeit widely believed even among flight crews. These devices have already met the FAA standard of having been proven to not interfere with aircraft electronics. The reason you turn them off is because of FCC regulations governing cell phones. Moving in a jet, your device rapidly switches from one cell tower to the next, hogging the bandwidth of several cell phones.

Further, passengers (and crew) have been "trained" by this myth of electronic interference to believe that anyone using an electronic device will cause the airplane to explode, fall out of the sky, and rain death and destruction on everyone for hundreds of miles around. It is like the requirement that you turn off your cell phone when near a gas pump. No cell phone has ever caused a gas pump to explode; nevertheless some people believe it can, so to prevent panic and possibly even assault by the ignorant, you don't use your cell phone near the gas pump. No phone has ever been proven to have interfered with the operation of an airplane, either, unless the phone was deliberately modified to do so.

As for backup systems -- each pilot has his own iPad, plus the electronic screens built into the airplane itself. The iPads are used to display checklists and to brief instrument approach and departure procedures. These procedures used to take several volumes of very large and heavy books which filled a large bag. These books require constant updating, which itself can take many hours per month. Electronic flight bags such as tablet PCs and iPads greatly simplify this task and dramatically increase flight safety by making sure every procedure is current. Pilots spend less time leafing through volumes of approach plates and more time looking outside the aircraft, too.
post #27 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by calfoto View Post

Does anyone know if the GPS in an iPad will function, let alone keep up with the speed of a jet in flight?

 

The problem is not with the speed of the flight. The iPad's GPS antenna is not sensitive enough to reliably pick up GPS signals in many aircraft. Aircraft are made of metal which interferes with GPS reception. It is possible to mount an antenna on the exterior of the airplane, though, and connect an iPad to that.

post #28 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by Douglas Bailey View Post

Speaking of fire. In the past if these guys crash landed in the snow they could have used their paper manual to start a fire. Not so any more. And where do they even have room to mount the iPad in that cockpit!?
They can use the battery to start a fire by shorting it.
OR, they can use the GPS to find their way out of where they are - something books can't do.
post #29 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by calfoto View Post

Does anyone know if the GPS in an iPad will function, let alone keep up with the speed of a jet in flight?

 

Speed isn't a factor. (Unless you were able to approach some significant fraction of the speed of light... though the GPS satellite system DOES, in fact, take into account the relativistic effects of being in Low Earth Orbit.)

 

Quote:
Originally Posted by cjcampbell View Post

 

The problem is not with the speed of the flight. The iPad's GPS antenna is not sensitive enough to reliably pick up GPS signals in many aircraft. Aircraft are made of metal which interferes with GPS reception. It is possible to mount an antenna on the exterior of the airplane, though, and connect an iPad to that.

 

 

So why bother with that at all?... the airplane already has a hugely robust GPS system installed (2 actually), that also happens to be integrated with the Flight Management Computers and Autopilot... There's no need to utilize the iPad's internal GPS functions.

(And yes, the airplanes position data could be fed into the iPad for location-aware functions, such as listing charts for nearest airports at the top of a list or some such thing... though getting FAA permission to apply such integration is a HUGE and expensive hold-up to the process.)

 

While the airplane IS made of aluminum (though that's changing ... see the Boeing 787), the cockpit has larger windows than in back, and portable GPS units work just fine up there! :)  The map function on the iPhone/iPad doesn't work because it also requires a data connection.  And the iPhone's compass App is almost uselessly subject to interference from the various electromagnetic fields generated in the cockpit.

From out there on the moon, international politics look so petty. You want to grab a politician by the scruff of the neck and drag him a quarter of a million miles out and say, "Look at that!" -...
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From out there on the moon, international politics look so petty. You want to grab a politician by the scruff of the neck and drag him a quarter of a million miles out and say, "Look at that!" -...
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post #30 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by KingOfSomewhereHot View Post

Quote:
Originally Posted by calfoto View Post

Does anyone know if the GPS in an iPad will function, let alone keep up with the speed of a jet in flight?

 

Speed isn't a factor. (Unless you were able to approach some significant fraction of the speed of light... though the GPS satellite system DOES, in fact, take into account the relativistic effects of being in Low Earth Orbit.)

 

I don't think that is quite correct. Even though in theory they can measure high speeds (which would be limited by their ability to keep the shifting signals locked - a processing limitation rather than a speed of light limitation), I believe that civilian GPS units are required under ITAR not to report speeds in excess of 1000 km/hr to prevent them being used for weapons system applications.

post #31 of 47
"those bags can way as much as 35 pounds."

I think you mean "weigh"
post #32 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by KingOfSomewhereHot View Post

 

Speed isn't a factor. (Unless you were able to approach some significant fraction of the speed of light... though the GPS satellite system DOES, in fact, take into account the relativistic effects of being in Low Earth Orbit.)

 

 

 

So why bother with that at all?... the airplane already has a hugely robust GPS system installed (2 actually), that also happens to be integrated with the Flight Management Computers and Autopilot... There's no need to utilize the iPad's internal GPS functions.

(And yes, the airplanes position data could be fed into the iPad for location-aware functions, such as listing charts for nearest airports at the top of a list or some such thing... though getting FAA permission to apply such integration is a HUGE and expensive hold-up to the process.)

 

While the airplane IS made of aluminum (though that's changing ... see the Boeing 787), the cockpit has larger windows than in back, and portable GPS units work just fine up there! :)  The map function on the iPhone/iPad doesn't work because it also requires a data connection.  And the iPhone's compass App is almost uselessly subject to interference from the various electromagnetic fields generated in the cockpit.

 

 

You are right on all counts -- my point was not that it would not work; only that an external antenna would help it. As to why anyone would bother, I have no idea. Well, some. Back in the day there were a few private pilots that got FAA approval to mount portable GPS units on their control yokes. These had external antennae. I have used portable GPS units in the cockpit myself, but these have generally been with a suction cup antenna stuck to the windshield. Even so, the signal is weaker than what you get just standing on the ramp. Back in the early days of GPS, you could hardly get a GPS to function at all in the cockpit due to interference from the radios -- especially if you had some of those old style boat anchor types that you still see in some private aircraft. This is the thing that people don't understand -- aircraft radios radiate a lot of power, while a GPS unit's power is measured in milliwatts. If there is going to be interference, the airplane's radio is going to win every time.

 

Anyway, I would far rather a pilot use an iPad as an electronic flight bag rather than messing with those paper volumes.

post #33 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by muppetry View Post

 

I don't think that is quite correct. Even though in theory they can measure high speeds (which would be limited by their ability to keep the shifting signals locked - a processing limitation rather than a speed of light limitation), I believe that civilian GPS units are required under ITAR not to report speeds in excess of 1000 km/hr to prevent them being used for weapons system applications.

Only for GPS units capable of functioning above 18,000 meters altitude. The limit is 515 meters/second (1001 knots). And those limits apply only to GPS units built for export. Otherwise you need a State Department export license to export the GPS. You can get a permit for darned near anything these days.

post #34 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by plovell View Post

"those bags can way as much as 35 pounds."
I think you mean "weigh"

Garth Algar wrote the article.

 

No Way!

 

Way!

post #35 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by TheShepherd View Post

This must be special iPads if they can be used during takeoff and landing without adversely affecting the plane's operation.

Exactly.  Alec Baldwin needed this "special" iPad.

post #36 of 47

They won't be using the iPad GPS. The plane-installed GPS that is currently in-use without iPads taken into account will still be the standard. The iPad will just be used for digital versions of the arrival, departure, and approach plates for review and orientation prior to entering those phases of flight or during for quick-reference if deviations that aren't programmed into the flight management computer system as necessary. This is just replacing a bag full of books with an iPad.

 

 

post #37 of 47

GPS is a non-issue.  Pilots carry Jeppeson manuals that have approach charts for all airports.  These are indeed quite heavy.  The iPad is designed to replace the paper approach charts and maps only.  It's not going to replace the on-board navigation equipment that is GPS enabled.

post #38 of 47
When a phone loses connection it boosts it's signal tremendously searching a a new connection cellular radios (phones) absolutely do interfere with airline radios at close range (5 feet or less). Try outting your phone up next to your car radio in a area you lose signal. Now Put 5 or 50 phones in close proximity to a much more sensitive airline radio all doing that signal hunting at the same time and that can become a legitimate concern. If that happened during take off and landing when lots of important time sensitive radio information was being exchanged that would bad as important info could be missed.

I'm not saying its reasonable for every passenger in every seat to turn off every device or that it's ever been a real world problem, but it's not pure fiction. Neither is it reasonable to expect flight attendants to know which devices do and do not have radios that could cause interference.
post #39 of 47

Wat? But all the ubergeeks on the tech sites told me the iPad was a toy. Are you telling me I can't trust the words of smelly neckbeards with personality disorders? Cory Doctorow said the iPad was the end of all things, oh waily waily. Stallman said the iPad was going to devour our personal freeeeeeeeedoms, krishna krishna rama rama.

 

Aw, just teasing, kids. Gosh, I hope my utter contempt for modern geek culture and its technoreligious, moonbat leadership didn't inadvertently seep through.

post #40 of 47
Quote:
Originally Posted by jb510 View Post

When a phone loses connection it boosts it's signal tremendously searching a a new connection cellular radios (phones) absolutely do interfere with airline radios at close range (5 feet or less). Try outting your phone up next to your car radio in a area you lose signal. Now Put 5 or 50 phones in close proximity to a much more sensitive airline radio all doing that signal hunting at the same time and that can become a legitimate concern. If that happened during take off and landing when lots of important time sensitive radio information was being exchanged that would bad as important info could be missed.
I'm not saying its reasonable for every passenger in every seat to turn off every device or that it's ever been a real world problem, but it's not pure fiction. Neither is it reasonable to expect flight attendants to know which devices do and do not have radios that could cause interference.

That's just plane ;) wrong.

 

There is NO EFFECT on aircraft by cellphones or other consumer electronic devices.

 

There is NO LEGITIMATE CONCERN whatsoever... it's just that the FAA (that's the Federal Government) imposed this rule back in the day, because that was easier than doing any real study.  Now that the rule is in place, we can't seem to get rid of it, even though it's been proven unnecessary.

 

 

(Now... If you choose to ignore the regulation and instructions from the flight crew that go with it... you COULD be considered a terrorist and be detained indefinitely without further charges regardless of your citizenship.  That's UNLIKELY to be the way it goes down, but the U.S. government has written law that allows exactly that scenario... odd that nobody is upset by THAT.)

From out there on the moon, international politics look so petty. You want to grab a politician by the scruff of the neck and drag him a quarter of a million miles out and say, "Look at that!" -...
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From out there on the moon, international politics look so petty. You want to grab a politician by the scruff of the neck and drag him a quarter of a million miles out and say, "Look at that!" -...
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