Very interesting to say the least. Do realize that this is just one avenue in a very active research landscape. There was a similar report from Korea just a week or two ago that describe a lithium battery with extremely quick charge discharge cycles. In a nut shell research is going on world wide.
From the standpoint of personal electronics the last thing you want is a battery that can discharge fast. The risk from short circuits becomes huge, already lithium battery's can create significant fires during thermal runaway. Increase the discharge rate too much and you end up with arc welder type discharges.
They other thing here is that you can't charge a battery any faster than the power source allows. Apple already has issues with this as USB is a power limited port.
These sorts of batteries would be great for hybrid type electric vehicles. I still think we are a very long way from feasible all electric vehicles. I'm being reminded again of the seasons changing, I can't imagine an electric vehicle keeping a car warm during the winter drive sometimes all that waste heat comes in handy. (Yes I know batteries get hot but it gets damn cold here in the white north).
As with all R&D nobody knows where the research will go. In the end I expect to see many new battery technologies coming to market over the next few years. Some of the suggested technologies would be ideal for iOS devices if they can be perfected. Transportation though needs research in nuclear technologies. Yes nuclear, most likely
A fusion solution, I really don't see any other long term play.
As a step of the path here if you are into power tools, the move to Lithium batteries has resulted in rapid evolution of portable tools that sorta parallels the development of Apples iOS devices. The movement to Lithium quickly outmoded NiCad batteries that where the mainstay of the market for years. A market by the way that showed little innovation battery wise for years. Now we see rapid improvements to the lithium battery technology offered by the various tool makers. It is actually to the point that I find my tiny little Milwaukee drill to be amazing. Small, lite and powerful sort of like Apples handheld device or even their laptops for that matter.