I'm still not sure why parents want to hit their children when they don't have to. If you can't control your child, read some books or ask for advice.
Corporal Punishment in Adolescence and Physical Assaults on Spouses in Later Life: What Accounts for the Link? (in Corporal Punishment and Child Sexual Abuse)
Murray A. Straus; Carrie L. Yodanis
Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 4. (Nov., 1996), pp. 825-841.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=002...3E2.0.CO%3B2-2
Abstract: There is considerable evidence that corporal punishment is associated with the subsequent aggression of children, and there is recent evidence that later in life this aggression includes physical assaults on spouses. Yet there has been no direct test of either modeling of cultural norms or other processes that could account for the link between corporal punishment and partner violence. Using data on 4,401 couples who participated in the National Family Violence Survey, this article reports such a test. The theoretical model specified three processes: social learning, depression, and truncated development of nonviolent conflict-resolution skills. Logistic regression was used to estimate separate models for men and women. The findings are consistent with the theoretical model. Because corporal punishment of adolescents occurs in over half of U.S. families, the findings suggest that elimination of this practice can reduce some of the psychological and social processes that increase the likelihood of future marital violence and perhaps other violence as well.
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On Discipline (in Commentaries)
Psychological Inquiry, Vol. 8, No. 3. (1997), pp. 215-217.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=104...3E2.0.CO%3B2-J
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Discipline and Deviance: Physical Punishment of Children and Violence and Other Crime in Adulthood (in Presidential Address: Punishment and Violence)
Murray A. Straus
Social Problems, Vol. 38, No. 2. (May, 1991), pp. 133-154.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=003...3E2.0.CO%3B2-4
Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical model of the antecedents and consequences of the use of physical punishment by parents and teachers and preliminary tests of that theory using data from a variety of sources, most notably the 3,300 children and 6,000 couples in the National Family Violence Survey. Over 90 percent of American parents use physical punishment to correct misbehavior. The findings support the theory that although physical punishment may produce conformity in the immediate situation, in the longer run it tends to increase the probability of deviance, including delinquency in adolescence and violent crime inside and outside the family as an adult. However, since the findings are based on cross sectional studies, experimental studies are needed to test the causal nature of the relationships. If the results of such experiments support the theory, important implications emerge for both individual parents and national policy. For individual parents, the theory suggests that parents who use no physical punishment will, on the average, have better behaved children. At the national policy level, the theory suggests that one of the steps needed to achieve a society with a minimum of crime and violence is for parents to avoid all use of physical punishment.
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Corporal Punishment as a Stressor among Youth (in Conflict and Distress)
Heather A. Turner; David Finkelhor
Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 1. (Feb., 1996), pp. 155-166.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=002...2.0.CO%3B2-%23
Abstract: This article addresses the impact of corporal punishment by parents on the psychological well-being of youth. The present research used the National Youth Victimization Prevention Study (NYVPS), a nationally representative sample of 1,042 boys and 958 girls, ages 10-16. Based on a stress-process framework, we examine: (a) the effects of frequency of corporal punishment experienced by youth ages 10-16 on psychological distress and clinically relevant depression and (b) the moderating influence of parental support on the associations between corporal punishment and psychological outcomes. Controlling for sociodemographic factors and physical abuse, our findings indicate a positive association between the frequency of corporal punishment and both psychological distress and depression. Although distress is greatest at higher frequencies of punishment, the association is also present at low and moderate levels of corporal punishment. An interaction between corporal punishment and parental support was also evident, showing that the impact of frequent punishment relative to no corporal punishment was greater in the context of high parental support.
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Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
ISSN: 1096-4037 (Paper) 1573-2827 (Online)
Issue: Volume 2, Number 2
Date: June 1999
Pages: 55 - 70
Corporal Punishment by American Parents: National Data on Prevalence, Chronicity, Severity, and Duration, in Relation to Child and Family Characteristics
Murray A. Straus Contact Information and Julie H. Stewart
Abstract We present data on corporal punishment (CP) by a nationally representative sample of 991 American parents interviewed in 1995. Six types of CP were examined: slaps on the hand or leg, spanking on the buttocks, pinching, shaking, hitting on the buttocks with a belt or paddle, and slapping in the face. The overall prevalence rate (the percentage of parents using any of these types of CP during the previous year) was 35% for infants and reached a peak of 94% at ages 3 and 4. Despite rapid decline after age 5, just over half of American parents hit children at age 12, a third at age 14, and 13% at age 17. Analysis of chronicity found that parents who hit teenage children did so an average of about six times during the year. Severity, as measured by hitting the child with a belt or paddle, was greatest for children age 512 (28% of such children). CP was more prevalent among African American and low socioeconomic status parents, in the South, for boys, and by mothers. The pervasiveness of CP reported in this article, and the harmful side effects of CP shown by recent longitudinal research, indicates a need for psychology and sociology textbooks to reverse the current tendency to almost ignore CP and instead treat it as a major aspect of the socialization experience of American children; and for developmental psychologists to be cognizant of the likelihood that parents are using CP far more often than even advocates of CP recommend, and to inform parents about the risks involved.
Punishment - physical - corporal - spanking - parent - age - infant - gender - SES - ethnic - region