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Apple quietly added in the ability for it to generate the application code to any processor when it included 'bitcode' as part of the App Store submission process. For apps on the Mac App Store that added this, those apps can be re-generated for the ARM from the x86 code. All of this is based on the LLVM work that Apple funded years ago.
The cutover from X86 to ARM has been well-planned by Apple for years and, when it happens, I suspect that the transition will be the smoothest ever. I lived through Rosetta and it was as good as it could be made. The approach Apple is planning will make that look like the stone age.