Apple's Face ID with attention detection fooled by $200 mask

Posted:
in General Discussion edited November 2017
After supposedly tricking Apple's Face ID security system earlier this month with a $150 mask, Vietnamese security firm Bkav on Monday said it has repeated the process with a second 3D-printed mask that can also bypass iPhone X's attention detection safeguard.




In its first video, Bkav demonstrated a proof of concept Face ID attack involving a 3D-printed frame covered in makeup, a silicone nose, 2D images and a large "specially processed" area.

At the time, skeptics called Bkav's methodology into question. Notably, the security firm failed to record the Face ID enrollment process, meaning Bkav could have enrolled the mask as the device's primary user. Alternatively, Face ID might have adjusted to authenticate the original mask over the course of multiple unlock attempts as the system "learns" from consecutive successful unlocks, a feature designed cope with natural changes to a user's face.

Bkav's latest video, however, runs through the entire enrollment process without cuts, suggesting the new mask -- 3D printed from stone powder with eyes represented by 2D infrared images -- did indeed circumvent Face ID's protections.

Seen in the short clip, a human user erases the enrolled Face ID profile in system settings and sets up a new account in real time. The user unlocks the handset using his own face, locks it and carefully positions it in front of the mask dubbed the "artificial twin." Bkav's double successfully unlocks iPhone X not once, but twice.

Perhaps more impressive is that Bkav was able to bypass Face ID's attention detection feature, an optional safeguard that monitors a user's eyes to verify that they are looking at their phone before unlocking it.





In a blog post detailing the procedure, Bkav said the new mask cost about $200 to produce using materials and tools readily available to casual users.

"About 2 weeks ago, we recommended that only very important people such as national leaders, large corporation leaders, billionaires, etc. should be cautious when using Face ID," said Ngo Tuan Anh, VP of cyber security at Bkav. "However, with this research result, we have to raise the severity level to every casual users: Face ID is not secure enough to be used in business transactions."

According to the firm, fingerprint-based biometric security systems are superior to facial recognition solutions like Face ID. Fingerprints, the firm says, cannot be collected at a distance, while photographs can. That said, it is unclear what data Bkav used to create its second mask. Traditionally, 3D printed objects are rendered from highly accurate CAD files or three-dimensional scans run through specialized software.

Whether Bkav was able to extrapolate dimensioning data from 2D photographs is unknown.

Bkav's video is the latest in a string of attempts to defeat Face ID. Earlier this month a video showing a 10-year-old unlocking his mother's iPhone X surfaced, offering evidence that Face ID is sometimes unable to distinguish between family members who strongly resemble each other. Other unscientific tests involved twins, some of whom were able to unlock a sibling's device.
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Comments

  • Reply 1 of 94
    So are people going to walk around wearing $200 masks of me, somehow getting the exact dimensions of my face? I think this is kinda stupid and worthless.
    edited December 2017 magman1979andrewj5790RonnnieOwatto_cobracalimwhitecintosSnickersMagoojkichlinejensonb
  • Reply 2 of 94
    From Mashable: "Bkav researchers said that making 3D model is very simple," the blog post noted. "A person can be secretly taken photos of in just a few seconds when entering a room containing a pre-setup system of cameras located at different angles. Then, the photos will be processed by algorithms to make a 3D object."

    So, to unlock an iPhone X using this hack, you need to do one of two things: 1) Steal a phone and then capture a bunch of photos of the owner without his/her knowledge, print a mask using stone dust and some kind of infrared printer, all within 48 hours (or less) to get under the phone's biometric time limit, or 2) do all of that stuff BEFORE you steal the phone so the mask will be ready when you have the phone in your custody.

    Oh yeah. You iPhone X owners should be petrified with concern.
    edited November 2017 JFC_PAcornchipking editor the grateradarthekatmagman1979pscooter63anomeSpamSandwichandrewj5790avidthinker
  • Reply 3 of 94
    rob53rob53 Posts: 1,767member
    Weird, after scanning his face without actually looking at the camera (his eyes were glancing down), the lock icon was unlocked when he first tried having the mask unlock it, then the lock changed to locked and he said it was unlocked. 

    I wish people would use standard test practices instead of having both the test mask and the real face in the room in the same general area at the same time. If I was running this test, I'd encode my face in another room, test to make sure it unlocks, then restart the phone, enter my pin, lock the phone then unlock with my face again to make sure the normal, entire process works. 

    Once this is done I'd lock the phone and give the phone to a different person who takes it into a separate room and tries unlocking it with the mask. 

    I would think Apple's algorithms would notice a 2D print of the eyes and the lack of realistic 3D around the eyes. A person can not make the exact "face" twice in a row so the software should sense the lack of change in facial muscles from one attempt to the next. Until someone actually runs a proper test, I will still believe in Apple's FaceID product.
    cornchipgeorgie01radarthekatmagman1979gregoriusmpscooter63StrangeDaysmacpluspluscalicintos
  • Reply 4 of 94
    The missing detail is the step by step procedure to get the data for the scan. Documented in real-time. 

    A bland declaration of “easy” doesn’t cut it. 
    magman1979gregoriusmcalijensonbGeorgeBMacbb-15watto_cobrajony0
  • Reply 5 of 94
    dalekurtdalekurt Posts: 1unconfirmed, member
    If I'm not mistaken, the Apple FaceID learns the user's face and get better over time. So providing it will initial data then testing it may not be the best way to test the security of FaceID. Other users have noted that after doing the initial FaceID scan there are instances where they have to unlock using the PIN to confirm that it was their face that was scanned based on subtle changes, such as a hat, glasses, etc. 
    cornchipgregoriusmmacxpressStrangeDaysredgeminipajensonbGeorgeBMach2pwatto_cobrajony0
  • Reply 6 of 94
    Let's all run out and buy masks so we can open each other's iPhone X's.

    GeorgeBMacfreshmakerh2pwatto_cobrajony0aegean
  • Reply 7 of 94
    Sure!! I believe Vietnamese hackers.
    cornchipmagman1979watto_cobra
  • Reply 8 of 94
    macxpressmacxpress Posts: 3,886member
    dalekurt said:
    If I'm not mistaken, the Apple FaceID learns the user's face and get better over time. So providing it will initial data then testing it may not be the best way to test the security of FaceID. Other users have noted that after doing the initial FaceID scan there are instances where they have to unlock using the PIN to confirm that it was their face that was scanned based on subtle changes, such as a hat, glasses, etc. 
    Yes that is true...what they should be doing is letting it learn a face over the course of say a month and then try the mask. Not setup FaceID and then immediately try this mask to try and fake it out. This true isn't a real world test IMO. 
    georgie01radarthekatmagman1979gregoriusmpscooter63StrangeDaysentropysredgeminipajensonbh2p
  • Reply 9 of 94
    rob53 said:
    Weird, after scanning his face without actually looking at the camera (his eyes were glancing down), the lock icon was unlocked when he first tried having the mask unlock it, then the lock changed to locked and he said it was unlocked. 

    I wish people would use standard test practices instead of having both the test mask and the real face in the room in the same general area at the same time. If I was running this test, I'd encode my face in another room, test to make sure it unlocks, then restart the phone, enter my pin, lock the phone then unlock with my face again to make sure the normal, entire process works. 

    Once this is done I'd lock the phone and give the phone to a different person who takes it into a separate room and tries unlocking it with the mask. 

    I would think Apple's algorithms would notice a 2D print of the eyes and the lack of realistic 3D around the eyes. A person can not make the exact "face" twice in a row so the software should sense the lack of change in facial muscles from one attempt to the next. Until someone actually runs a proper test, I will still believe in Apple's FaceID product.
    So, you mean, like science n shit?
    cintosmike1h2pmattinozwatto_cobra
  • Reply 10 of 94

    "About 2 weeks ago, we recommended that only very important people such as national leaders, large corporation leaders, billionaires, etc. should be cautious when using Face ID," said Ngo Tuan Anh, VP of cyber security at Bkav. "However, with this research result, we have to raise the severity level to every casual users: Face ID is not secure enough to be used in business transactions."
    This is revealing about Bkav. They certainly aren’t providing a public service, and their lack of transparency and overstatement of the scope of the security issue is suspicious. And $200? Right... As long as you have already invested in a sophisticated 3D scanner and a 3D printer and whatever other equipment is necessary and have the time to invest in developing a ‘hack’ and also have the means to get such a scan of the person who’s phone you want to get into. That doesn’t cost $200, and this company knows it. So what’s their motive in trying to make FaceID seem so insecure? What do they have to gain from it?
    edited November 2017 radarthekatmagman1979gregoriusmdewmeanantksundaramcaliredgeminipah2ppropodwatto_cobra
  • Reply 11 of 94
    radarthekatradarthekat Posts: 2,128moderator
    iPhone owner: “So, you can unlock my iPhone using a mask that cost you just $200 to create?  How does that work?”

    Bkav:  “Yes, it’s really quite simple.  Just register FaceID, then immediately hand over your iPhone to us, before you use the iPhone to refine the FaceID data set, and also stand still while we take some detailed photos of your face under controlled lighting conditions.  Then go home and come back tomorrow and we’ll show you the trick.  Oh, and in the meantime please don’t use Find My Phone to lock us out, okay?”

    And... GO!
    edited November 2017 ericthehalfbeemagman1979gregoriusmpscooter63StrangeDaysanantksundaramMartin57entropysadm1cali
  • Reply 12 of 94
    These idiots again. Looking for another 15 minutes of fame at Apple's expense.

    I want someone, anyone who hacks FaceID or TouchID to show us an unedited video of the entire process. For all we know they tried dozens of times and then only published a video when it worked.

    In fact, I'd bet $$$ this is EXACTLY what's happening here.
    magman1979gregoriusmMartin57caliredgeminipajensonbwatto_cobra
  • Reply 13 of 94
    anomeanome Posts: 872member
    pdbreske said:
    From Mashable: "Bkav researchers said that making 3D model is very simple," the blog post noted. "A person can be secretly taken photos of in just a few seconds when entering a room containing a pre-setup system of cameras located at different angles. Then, the photos will be processed by algorithms to make a 3D object."

    So, to unlock an iPhone X using this hack, you need to do one of two things: 1) Steal a phone and then capture a bunch of photos of the owner without his/her knowledge, print a mask using stone dust and some kind of infrared printer, all within 48 hours (or less) to get under the phone's biometric time limit, or 2) do all of that stuff BEFORE you steal the phone so the mask will be ready when you have the phone in your custody.

    Oh yeah. You iPhone X owners should be petrified with concern.

    I'll get Barney, you go get Rollin, and we'll go meet Jim out the back of the EEPR embassy.

    I'm still not completely convinced, although they have addressed one or two questions about the previous test. Don't think it's going to work as a real world test.

  • Reply 14 of 94
    jd_in_sbjd_in_sb Posts: 1,460member
    Finger scanning scanning company declares competing face scanning is not secure enough for business. More than a little conflict there. 
    StrangeDaysjensonbwatto_cobra
  • Reply 15 of 94
    rob53rob53 Posts: 1,767member
    cornchip said:
    rob53 said:
    Weird, after scanning his face without actually looking at the camera (his eyes were glancing down), the lock icon was unlocked when he first tried having the mask unlock it, then the lock changed to locked and he said it was unlocked. 

    I wish people would use standard test practices instead of having both the test mask and the real face in the room in the same general area at the same time. If I was running this test, I'd encode my face in another room, test to make sure it unlocks, then restart the phone, enter my pin, lock the phone then unlock with my face again to make sure the normal, entire process works. 

    Once this is done I'd lock the phone and give the phone to a different person who takes it into a separate room and tries unlocking it with the mask. 

    I would think Apple's algorithms would notice a 2D print of the eyes and the lack of realistic 3D around the eyes. A person can not make the exact "face" twice in a row so the software should sense the lack of change in facial muscles from one attempt to the next. Until someone actually runs a proper test, I will still believe in Apple's FaceID product.
    So, you mean, like science n shit?
    We're trying to have intelligent discussions on this topic and don't need some smart ass comment degrading science. FaceID is science and if you're having problems dealing with that, don't bother commenting. It's a waste of my time commenting about your comment but it needs to be done. Some comments can be funny but not the one you left. Science is an important part of schooling, one that too many students overlook because it's not glamorous but it's absolutely necessary if we're going to have young educated people fill in for us old guys. 
    caliwatto_cobra
  • Reply 16 of 94
    rob53rob53 Posts: 1,767member
    I don't mind all these people trying to say they've cracked Apple's FaceID because it gives Apple a ton of feedback they can use to continue to evolve this product. For the most part, I feel software updates will be able to address the majority of these potential failures. Of course, a better, more extensive initial face scan might be required. I suggest adding at least two more scans, one including a change in facial expression (squint, smile or don't smile, open/close your mouth) and one including wearing glasses, a hat/or other head covering and maybe even covering some of your face with your hand. Force the software to capture more initial characteristics of the face and not accept the scan until it captures an adequate number of scans of the eyes in various positions.

    I would think FaceID would not work if it doesn't sense movement in the eyes, which would not happen in the test given in this article. Try staring without changing the location of your eye and you'll find it's almost impossible. Apple needs to add this requirement, if it's not already there. The eyes need to shift, refocus, or change somehow to recognize it as a live person.
  • Reply 17 of 94
    The experiment might be ok for their setup. The conclusion is way off. 
    jensonb
  • Reply 18 of 94
    bluefire1 said:
    Let's all run out and buy masks so we can open each other's iPhone X's.

    Lets all go back to 2013 and pretend Touch ID was foolproof and that the SAME SHENANIGANS weren’t being done to gain attention.

    https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2013/09/defeating-apples-touch-id-its-easier-than-you-may-think/
    StrangeDaysbluefire1
  • Reply 19 of 94
    SoliSoli Posts: 6,202member
    rob53 said:
    Weird, after scanning his face without actually looking at the camera (his eyes were glancing down), the lock icon was unlocked when he first tried having the mask unlock it, then the lock changed to locked and he said it was unlocked. 

    I wish people would use standard test practices instead of having both the test mask and the real face in the room in the same general area at the same time. If I was running this test, I'd encode my face in another room, test to make sure it unlocks, then restart the phone, enter my pin, lock the phone then unlock with my face again to make sure the normal, entire process works. 

    Once this is done I'd lock the phone and give the phone to a different person who takes it into a separate room and tries unlocking it with the mask. 

    I would think Apple's algorithms would notice a 2D print of the eyes and the lack of realistic 3D around the eyes. A person can not make the exact "face" twice in a row so the software should sense the lack of change in facial muscles from one attempt to the next. Until someone actually runs a proper test, I will still believe in Apple's FaceID product.
    I agree. I don't have any reason to think this test was faked but they sure leave don't do a great job of removing all possible doubt when they're trying to show that a biometric can be fooled.
    gatorguycalijony0
  • Reply 20 of 94
    volcanvolcan Posts: 1,495member
    kimberly said:
    As a moderator, consider posts with racist comments like the example below (final sentence).
    That is not racist. It is like saying the Canadians spend all their time making boysenberry pies. Probably not true but it has nothing to do with race.
    calimike1king editor the grateradarthekatwatto_cobra
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